Eliminating Nuclear Threats

A Practical Agenda for Global Policymakers



GARETH EVANS and YORIKO KAWAGUCHI CO-CHAIRS                    Commission Members

Annex B: members of the commission

Gareth Evans (Australia) (Co-chair)

Gareth Evans (Australia) (Co-chair)Professor Evans, is Chancellor of the Australian National University, an Honorary Professorial Fellow at the University of Melbourne and President Emeritus of the Brussels-based International Crisis Group, the independent global NGO working with some 120 full-time staff on five continents to prevent and resolve deadly conflict, which he directed from 2000 to 2009. He is the recipient of the 2010 Roosevelt Institute’s Freedom from Fear award for his pioneering work on the concept of the responsibility to protect against mass atrocity crimes, and on nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. He spent 21 years in Australian politics, thirteen of them as a Cabinet Minister in the positions of Attorney-General (1983-84), Minister for Resources and Energy (1984-87), Minister for Transport and Communications (1987-88) and Foreign Minister (1988-96), where he was associated, among other things, with the negotiation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and the establishment of the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons. He has written or edited nine books (most recently The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and for All, Brookings Institution Press, 2008) and published over 100 journal articles and book chapters on foreign relations, human rights and legal and constitutional reform. He was Co-chair of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (2001), and a member, inter alia, of the UN Secretary General's High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (2004), the Blix Commission on Weapons of Mass Destruction (2006), and the Zedillo Commission on the Future of the IAEA (2008). He has degrees in Law and Arts from Melbourne and Oxford, and Honorary Doctorates from Melbourne, Sydney and Carleton, universities, and is an Honorary Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Yoriko Kawaguchi (Japan) (Co-chair)

Yoriko Kawaguchi (Japan) (Co-chair)Ms Kawaguchi has been a Member of the House of Councillors for the Liberal Democratic Party since 2005. She was Special Adviser to the Prime Minister of Japan, responsible for foreign affairs, from 2004 to 2005; Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2002 to 2004 and Minister for the Environment from 2000 to 2002. Previously, Ms Kawaguchi was a Managing Director of Suntory Ltd, Director General of Global Environmental Affairs at the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and Minister at the Embassy of Japan to the United States. From 1976 to 1978 she was an economist at the World Bank. Ms Kawaguchi currently holds a variety of senior positions in the House of Councillors and the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan including Vice-Chair of the Policy Research Council (Environment). In addition to her role as Co-chair of ICNND she is a Member of the Board of Trustees on the United States-Japan Foundation, Chairperson of the Asia-Pacific Forum for Environment and Development, a Foundation Board Member of the Forum of Young Global Leaders, a Member of the Advisory Board of the Energy and Climate Change Working Group of the Clinton Global Initiative, Special Advisor to the Provost at the United Nations University and Councillor of the International Committee of Parliamentarians for Global Action. Ms Kawaguchi holds an M.Phil in Economics from Yale University and a BA in International Relations from the University of Tokyo. In 2008, Ms Kawaguchi was awarded Yale’s Wilbur Cross Medal.

Turki Al Faisal (Saudi Arabia)

Turki Al Faisal (Saudi Arabia)HRH Prince Turki Al Faisal is currently Chairman of the Board of the King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies in Riyadh. Educated at Georgetown, Princeton and Cambridge Universities, Prince Turki was appointed Adviser to the Royal Court in 1973, and held the post of Director General of the General Intelligence Directorate from 1977 to 2001. Subsequently he was appointed Ambassador to the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland (2003–05) and to the United States (2005–2006). Currently Prince Turki is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Oxford Islamic Center in the United Kingdom, a founder of the King Faisal Foundation, and a member of the Board of Trustees of the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies at Georgetown University. He has been a benefactor of the arts as former Chairman of the Board of the Prince Charles Visual Islamic and Traditional Arts Centre.

Alexei Arbatov (Russia)

Alexei Arbatov (Russia)Dr Arbatov is currently Head of the Center for International Security of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Chair of the Nonproliferation Program at the Carnegie Moscow Center and a member of the Political Council of the YABLOKO Party. Educated at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Dr Arbatov has been involved with Russian strategic issues as a consultant to the government on START I negotiations and an adviser on START II and START III negotiations. He was a member of the Duma from 1994–2003 as Deputy Chair of the Defense Committee. He is a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Chair of the Strategic Planning Group of the Advisory Board of the Russian Security Council; and a member of the Advisory Council of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Currently he also is on the boards of various international bodies including the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) and Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).

Gro Harlem Brundtland (Norway)

Gro Harlem Brundtland (Norway)Dr Brundtland served as Prime Minister of Norway in 1981, 1986–89 and 1990–96, and as a Member of Parliament from 1977 to 1997. A medical doctor, she studied medicine at the University of Oslo, completed a Master of Public Health at Harvard University in 1964, and from 1968 to 1974 was Deputy Director of School Health Services for the city of Oslo. From 1974 to 1979 she was Minister for the Environment in Norway, and from 1983 to 1987 served as Chair of the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development. Dr Brundtland was elected Director-General of the World Health Organisation in 1998 for a five year term to 2003. She is currently a Member of the Board of the United Nations Foundation and is the UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy on Climate Change.

Frene Noshir Ginwala (South Africa)

Frene Noshir Ginwala (South Africa)Dr Ginwala was Chancellor of the University of KwaZulu-Natal until June 2009, and is currently Chairperson of the Advisory Board of the African Union Convention on Corruption, and a member of the Advisory Board of the Coalition for Dialogue on Africa. Having studied law at the Universities of London and Oxford, she became Head of African National Congress (ANC) Research and its spokesperson for Western Europe (1974–90). From 1987 to 1988 she served on the Panel preparing UNESCO’s Programme on Peace and Conflict Research. She returned to South Africa as a member of Mr Mandela’s Office (1991–94), and was a member of the ANC negotiating team at the Convention for a Democratic South Africa and the Multi-Party Talks (1992–93). Dr Ginwala was a Member of Parliament from 1994 to 2004 and concurrently elected to the ANC’s National Executive. During that period she served as Speaker of the National Assembly. She has served on numerous African regional and UN advisory panels including to the High Commissioner for Refugees and the Human Security Commission.

François Heisbourg (France)

François Heisbourg (France)Mr Heisbourg is currently Chairman of the Foundation Council of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy, Chairman of the Council of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and Special Adviser, Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, Paris. He served in the French Foreign Ministry’s Policy Planning Staff in charge of nuclear non-proliferation issues and at the French Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (1979–81). He was subsequently International Security Adviser to the Minister of Defence (1981–84), Vice-President at Thomson-CSF, Director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (until 1992), Senior Vice-President (Strategic Development) at MATRA-Défense-Espace (1992–98), head of an inter-agency group on strategic affairs in France (1999–2000), Professor at Sciences-Po University, Paris (1999–2001), Director of the Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, Paris (2001–05), Member of the European Commission’s Group of Personalities on Security Research and Development (2003–04) and Member of the International Commission on the Balkans (2004–06). Most recently, Mr Heisbourg served as a Member of the Presidential Commission on the 2008 French Defence and National Security White Paper.

Jehangir Karamat (Pakistan)

Jehangir Karamat (Pakistan)General Karamat retired as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Pakistan Armed Forces and Chief of Army Staff Pakistan Army in October 1998 and is currently the Director of the Spearhead Research Institute. He is also a member of the Executive Council of the Institute of Public Policy at Beaconhouse National University and is on the Board of Governors of the Institute for Policy Research, Islamabad as well as the Senate of the National Defence University, Islamabad. General Karamat is a graduate of the National Defense College in Rawalpindi, the Command and Staff College in Quetta and the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, and holds an MA in international relations. In 1999 he was visiting fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University and was a Visiting Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC in 2000. Between 2004 and 2006 he served as Ambassador to the United States of America.

Brajesh Mishra (India)

Brajesh Mishra (India)Mr Mishra served from 1998–2004 as National Security Adviser and Principal Secretary to the then Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee. He joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1951, and has served in Karachi (Third Secretary 1955–56), Rangoon (Second Secretary 1956–57), Brussels (First Secretary 1957–60), Ministry of External Affairs (Deputy Secretary 1960–64), New York (Deputy Permanent Representative, 1964–69), Beijing ( Chargé d’ Affaires 1969–73), Geneva (Ambassador and Permanent Representative 1973–77), Jakarta (Ambassador 1977–79) and New York (Permanent Representative 1979–81). He subsequently became UN Commissioner for Namibia from 1981 to 1987. In 1991, Mr Mishra joined the Bharatiya Janata Party, and was appointed to the role of Convenor of the Bharatiya Janata Party’s Foreign Affairs Cell where he served from 1991 to 1998, resigning from the party in March 1998 upon his appointment as National Security Adviser.

Klaus Naumann (Germany)

Klaus Naumann (Germany)General Naumann was elected in 1996 as the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, a position he held until 1999. Over this period he was involved with NATO in Bosnia, the start of the Partnership for Peace, the 1999 enlargement of NATO, approval of a new NATO command structure and the Kosovo War. He joined the German Army in 1958, graduated in 1972 from the German Armed Forces Staff and Command College, and went on to study at the Royal College of Defence Studies in 1983. He held various command posts within the German military, leading to his appointment as Chief of Defence from 1991 to 1996. Following his retirement from military service General Naumann was a Member of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (2001), and on the support team to the High-level Panel on the United Nations. He has published two books, and received an honorary PhD from the University of Budapest. He is on the Senate of the German National Foundation.

William Perry (United States)

William Perry (United States)Dr Perry is a former U.S. Secretary for Defense and currently the Michael and Barbara Berberian Professor at Stanford University, with a joint appointment at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies (FSI) and the School of Engineering. As a distinguished expert in U.S. foreign policy, national security and arms control he is a senior fellow at FSI and serves as Co-Director of the Preventive Defense Project. He received BSc and MSc degrees from Stanford, followed by a PhD from Penn State University, all in mathematics. He began his career in the Army Corps of Engineers before taking on a succession of management and research positions within the technology and electronics industry. Dr Perry served as the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (1977 to 1981), Executive Vice-President of Hambrecht & Quist Inc. (1981–1985) and as founder and Chairman of Technology Strategies and Alliances (1985–1993). Dr Perry served as Deputy Secretary (1993–1994) and then Secretary of Defense (1994–1997).

Wang Yingfan (China)

Wang Yingfan (China)Ambassador Wang was appointed Assistant Foreign Minister and Vice Foreign Minister over the period 1993 to 2000. He then went on to become China’s Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 2000 to 2003. Born in Tuquan, Inner Mongolia, Ambassador Wang studied English at the Beijing Foreign Languages Institute. He joined the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1964, serving between 1978 and 1993 at ranks up to and including Director General of the Asian Department. He was the Co-Chair of expert group talks over the China-Vietnam border negotiations, and served as China’s Ambassador to the Philippines from 1988 to 1990. From 2003 to 2008, Ambassador Wang was a member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the Vice Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee, and Chairman of the China-Europe Parliamentary Relations Group. He is now a member of the Foreign Policy Advisory Group of China’s Foreign Ministry.

Shirley Williams (United Kingdom)

Shirley Williams (United Kingdom)Baroness Williams has been a member of the House of Lords since 1993, including as leader of the Liberal Democrats from 2001 to 2004. She is currently an Emeritus Professor of Electoral Politics at the Kennedy School of Government, and adviser on nuclear proliferation to Prime Minister Gordon Brown. Baroness Williams was educated at Somerville College, Oxford, and Colombia University. Starting her political career as a Member of Parliament in 1964, she has held a variety of roles including Shadow Home Secretary (1971–73), Secretary of State for Prices and Consumer Protection (1974–76), Paymaster General (1976–79), and Secretary of State for Education and Sciences (1976–79). Baroness Williams co-founded the Social Democrat Party in 1981, and served as the President of the Social Democrat Party between 1982 and 1987. From 1988 until 2000, Baroness Williams was a Professor at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard.

Wiryono Sastrohandoyo (Indonesia)*

Wiryono Sastrohandoyo (Indonesia)Ambassador Wiryono served as Ambassador to Austria and simultaneously as Permanent Representative of Indonesia to the United Nations in Vienna and the IAEA from 1988 to 1989. He was Director General of Political Affairs (1990–1993) and subsequently Ambassador to France (1993–96) and to Australia and Vanuatu (1996–99). Ambassador Wiryono was educated at the Academy of Foreign Service (Jakarta), L’Institute des Hautes Études Internationales (Geneva), Gajah Mada University (Yogyakarta), the University of Indonesia (Jakarta) and Johns Hopkins University (Washington, DC). He joined the Indonesian Foreign Service in 1957 and served in Buenos Aires, Washington, Paris and at the United Nations in New York. Ambassador Wiryono is currently a Senior Fellow at the Centre for Strategic and International Studies in Jakarta, and a Member of the Board of the Indonesian Council on World Affairs. He has also served on the Board of Governors for the Asia-Europe Foundation and the Institute of Peace and Democracy at Udayana University in Bali.

* Pak Wiryono was appointed to the Commission in January 2009 following the death of his Indonesian predecessor Ali Alatas in December 2008. Mr Alatas was Foreign Minister of Indonesia  from 1988 to 1999, and was adviser to and special envoy of the President of the Republic of Indonesia at the time of his death. The Commission was deeply saddened by the news of the passing of our colleague, who participated in the first meeting in October 2008, and whose wise advice and wealth of experience will be sorely missed internationally.

Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (Mexico)

Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (Mexico)Dr Zedillo was President of Mexico from 1994 to 2000, and is currently the Frederick Iseman ’74 Director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization; he is concurrently Professor of International and Area Studies; and Professor Adjunct of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University. He is also Chairman of the Board of the Global Development Network, based in New Delhi; and a member of the Foundation Board of the World Economic Forum, the Trilateral Commission, the International Advisory Board of the Council on Foreign Relations, the G30, the Board of Directors of the Institute for International Economics, the Board of Trustees of the International Crisis Group and the Board of Directors of the Inter-American Dialogue. He has served on numerous international commissions, most recently as Chair of the Commission on the Role of the IAEA to 2020 and Beyond, Co-Chair of the Partnership of the Americas Commission and Chair of the High-level Commission on World Bank Governance.


Next: Annex C: How the Commission Worked